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| Last Updated:: 16/01/2024

Biodiversity Heritage Sites

“Biodiversity Heritage Sites” (BHS) are well defined areas that are unique, ecologically fragile ecosystems - terrestrial, coastal and inland waters and, marine  having rich biodiversity comprising of any one or more of the following components: richness of wild as well as domesticated species or intra-specific categories, high endemism, presence of rare and threatened species, keystone species, species of evolutionary significance, wild ancestors of domestic/ cultivated species or their varieties, past pre-eminence of biological components represented by fossil beds and having significant cultural, ethical or aesthetic values and are important for the maintenance of cultural diversity, with or without a long history of human association with them. (Source: NBA, India) more...



List of Biodiversity Heritage Sites (as on January, 2024)


S. No.

Name of the Site


Name of the District


Importance of the area

Government Notification


Nallur Tamarind Grove



54 acres

It is popularly believed to be a relic of the Chola Dynasty that ruled nearly 800 years ago, is spectacle of awesome wonder and a freakish site. This BHS spread over 54 acres comprising a population of nearly 300 trees, is a picture of dynamic pattern of plant diversity. The significant component of this popular structure is a group of old plants standing like ageless sentinels, firmly rooted to the ground with their gigantic trunks, along with large picturesque crowns spread very high and aloft like open wings.

Aaapaji 154 ENV 2006, B'lore dt.24.01.2007





2508.15 acres

The area has unique Shola vegetation and grass land with number of floral species which are unique and having lot of medicinal value. Hogrekan is moderately wooded land and its vegetation is of dry deciduous type and has a link with Bababudanagiri and Kemmangundi, adjoining Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary and Yemmedode Tiger Reserve and serving as "Wildlife Corridor" between Kudremukha and Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary.

ENV 2009 dated 4.9.2010


University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Campus, Bengaluru



167 hectares

The GKVK campus is considered one of the greenest areas in Bengaluru. Biological diversity of this campus constitutes a critical repository of various forms of flora and fauna (including 13 sp of mammals, 10 sp of reptiles, 165 sp of birds and 530 sp of plants) which needs to be protected nurtured to posterity.

ENV 2009 dated 2.9.2010





3857.12 hectares

It is a revenue land located between Sharavathi Wild Life Sanctuary and Someshwara Wildlife Sanctuary. It has Shola vegetation which is primitive vegetation in the Western Ghat and also has grasslands.



Glory of Allapalli



6 hectares

It is a reserved forest being preserved as natural forest having biological, ethinical and historical values.

No.WLP.0914/C.R.317/M-1 dated 15th July 2014


Tonglu BHS under the Darjeeling Forest Division

West Bengal


230 hectares

It is a Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas

No.716-ENT/T-11-7/003-ii/2003 dated 20th March, 2015


Dhotrey BHS under the Darjeeling Forest Division

West Bengal


180 hectares

It is a Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas

No.716-ENT/T-11-7/003-ii/2003 dated 20th March, 2015


Dialong Village





No.24/3/2017-For &ENVT dt. 23rd May, 2017


Ameenpur lake





449/EFS&T (FOR.II) Department, dated 21.11.2016






It is an island situated in the Brahmaputra River which is harboring unique Ecological and Cultural Heritage.

FRW 57/2005/Vol.II/14 dated 29th March, 2017


Ghariyal Rehabilitation Centre

Uttar Pradesh


10 Hectares

It is a centre established for conservation and rehabilitation of critically endangered species of Gharial.

1348/XVI-5-2016-15/2016 dated 11th August, 2016


Chilkigarh Kanak Durga

West Bengal


55.9 Acres (Perimeter Of 1,969 Meters)

Chilkigarh Kanak Durga Sacred Grove is a remnant forest with traditional beliefs and taboos of local inhabitants and rich in biodiversity covering an area of 55.9 acres in Jhargram District of West Bengal.

No. 926/EN/T-II-7/003-II/2003 dt 16th April 2018


Khlaw Kur  Syiem KmieIng



16.05 ha

It is a mosaic of natural habitats along with significant diversity of life forms. It is also an old  Sacred Grove with monoliths and religious spots.

No. FOR.53/2018/59 dated 13th December, 2018  issued by Government of Meghalaya





528 ha

Mandasaru gorge is an adobe of 1563 species of plants, animals and fungi spreaded over an area of 528 ha.

Office Order issued by Government of Odisha


Purvatali Rai


North Goa

7300 Sq. mts.

Sacred Grove

Office Order issued by Government of Goa


Naro Hills

Madhya Pradesh


200 hect

Unique and varied geology and it supports a large number of ecosystem and species of Flora and Fauna.

Notifications by Government of Madhya Pradesh



Madhya Pradesh


8367.49 hect.,

terrain of 1700 feet deep valley and ecosystem of estimated age of 6 Million years and species of rare flora and fauna including rare Bryophytes and Pteridopytes;

Notification by Government of Madhya Pradesh





57.53 hect.,

The BHS hosts a unique diversity of Mangrove species with diverse flora and fauna. The area harbours 15 sp. of true mangroves, 22 sp. of mangroves associated. 122 sp. of plants, 34 sp. of edible fish and about 62 sp. of birds. Most importantly, the site has the rare and endangered heritage trees of Syzygium travancoricum which is listed as critically endangered in IUCN Red List.

Notification by Government of Kerala


Bambarde Myristica Swamps



2.59 Ha.,


Notification by Government of Maharashtra


Ganeshkhind Garden



33.01 Ha.,


Notification by Government of Maharashtra





48.08 Ha.,


Notification by Government of Maharashtra


Schistura Hiranyakeshi



2.11 Ha.,

The fish Schistura hiranyakeshi was spotted for the first time in a pond at the Mahadev Temple at Amboli in Sindhudurg district , Western Ghats The 2.11 ha area has now been declared as ‘Shistura Hiranyakeshi Biological Heritage Site’ in April 2021. It has become the 5th such heritage site in the state of Maharashtra. The fish was found by the team led by Tejas Thackeray, a wildlife researcher, and son of Maharashtra CM Uddhav Thackeray.

Notification by Government of Maharashtra


Baneswar Shiva Dighi

West Bengal


1.65 Acre

It offers refuge to Black Softshell Turtle Nilssonia nigricans listed under Appendix I of CITES and extinct  in the wild category of IUCN.

Notification by Government of West Bengal


Sacred Grove at Sural Bhatori Monastery

Himachal Pradesh


07.15 Acre

Uniqueness: A patch of Betula utilis or Bhojpatra trees wilh some intersp~rsed Willow trees Dominant shrubs and herbs: Rosa species, Lonicera species, Sorbus species, Agropyron longearistatum, Festuca species, Primula denticulata, Polygonatum verticillatum, Plantago asiatica, Heracleum candicans, Berberis species, Artemisia species, Bunium Persicum etc. Major faunal species, in the surrounding area: Snow Leopard, Brown Bear, Tibetan ·Wolf, Ibex etc

Notification by Government of Himachal Pradesh


High Altitude Meadow

Himachal Pradesh


108 Acre

Uniqueness: Cotoneaster species, Lonicera species, Sorbus species, Brachypodium sylvaticum, Bromusasper, Fesruca species, Poa species, Primula denticulata, Picrorhiza kurroa, Anemone species. Iris species, Artemisia species. Lonicera spocies, Bunium persicum, Jurinea macrocephala etc. Important Horal species recorded in the area: Picrorhiza kurroa, Dactylorhiza haragirea, Aconitum heterophyllum, Podophyllum hexandrum and Saussurea costus (cultivated). Major faunal species, in the region: Snow Leopard, Brown Bear, Black Bear, Tibetan Wolf, Himalayan Marmot, Ibex and Royle's Pika.

Notification by Government of Himachal Pradesh


Birch-pine Forest Patch

Himachal Pradesh

Lahaul & Spiti

151 bighas

Uniqueness: Main trees are Himalayan Birch (Betula utilis) and Blue Pine (Pinus wallichiiana). A few middle aged trees of West Himalayan Spruce (Picea smithiana), Deodar (Cedrus deodara) and Juniper (Juniperus species) are interspersed in the proposed patch. Besides. Willow (Salix species) and Sea Buckthorn (Jlippophae salicifolia) are also present in the site. The proposed site also includes a very good patch of grassy area, which supports a very good population of important medicinal and aromatic plants like Picrorhzza kurroa. Dactylorhiza hacagirea, Aconitum heterophyllum, Podophyllum hexandrum, Aconitum violaceum, Bunium persicum, Hippophae rhamnoides etc.

Notification by Government of Himachal Pradesh


Baramura waterfall



150 Ha

Uniqueness: The highest natural waterfall in Tripura. Critical habitat for rare wildlife. Rich in floristic diversity. Habitat for many stream water favored fauna

Notification by Government of Tripura





40 Ha

Uniqueness: Cultural and religious significance, Example of Ethno-religious aspects, Sacred trees and stones,Rich forest flora and fauna, Source of natural stream flow has diverse ecosystem services, Site of semi wild, wild and domesticated ornamental plants.

Notification by Government of Tripura


Silachari Caves



100 Ha

Uniqueness: Only natural cave of Tripura. Unique habitat for several threatened cave bat species in Tripura. Rich floristic diversity. Ethno-religious and cultural significance. Critical habitat for rare wildlife. Stream rich in aquatic fauna. Multi- ecosystem services.

Notification by Government of Tripura


Debbari or Chabimura



215 Ha

Uniqueness: River forest ecosystems at Debbari with rich fauna and flora. Unique habitat for threatened plants of Tripura like Dhup tree and cane resources of India. Unique breeding habitat for threatened fishes of Tripura. Unique breeding habitat for threatened wildlife of Tripura.

Notification by Government of Tripura


Betlingshib & its surroundings


North District

350 Ha

Uniqueness: Geographical/ topographical significance: The highest peak of Tripura allows unique habitat ecosystem. Aesthetic value: View of Mizoram and Chittagon hill tracts, other hills of Jampui, orange orchards. Due to change in altitude, topography and climate the vegetation is totally unique compared to the mainland of the state. Biodiversity Significance: Highest floristic diversity in Tripura. Conservation significance: Suitable habitat for several red listed flora and fauna. Medicinal plant conservation area. Cultural significance: Diverse agro-ecosystem model.

Notification by Government of Tripura



Madhya Pradesh


7681.50 Ha

Uniqueness: site is situated on the Maikal mountain range which links the Vindhyachal and Satpura mountain ranges, at about 1067 meters above mean sea level. Site has unique terrain of 1700 ft. deep valley and ecosystem of estimated age of 6 Million year and species of rare flora & fauna including rare Bryophytes and Pteridophytes. Site is spread over 8367 .49hectare area. Amarkantak ecological system is the origin of three major rivers which contributes to water security of India, which need to be conserved.

Notification by Government of Madhya Pradesh


Hajong Tortoise Lake


Dima Hasao

526.78 Ha

This lake is a natural habitat of Critically Endangered freshwater ‘Black Softshell turtle’ Nilssonia nigricans and Endangered ‘Indian Peacock Softshell turtle’ Nilssonia hurum besides other major flora and fauna. This site also harbour the threatened species like Critically Endangered Chinese Pangolin (Manis pentadactyla), Vulnerable Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), Leopard (Panthera pardus), Asiatic Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus), Fishing Cat (Prionailurus viverrinus), Sambar (Rusa unicolor), Western Hoolock Gibbon (Hoolock hoolock), Capped Langur (Trachypithecus pileatus), Wreathed Hornbill (Rhyticeros undulatus) etc.

Notification by Government of Assam


Borjuli Wild Rice Site



0.41 Ha

Uniqueness: This BHS has a good population of wild species of rice -Oryza rufipogon. The wetland located at 26.810888 N, 92.623559 E having area of 0.41 ha harbour a viable population of wild rice. This is a unique site due to population richness of this species, but both are vulnerable to climate change and anthropogenic activities. The species (O. rufipogon) possess genes for disease and pest resistance, tolerance to submergence and salinity, thus, important resource in breeding and improvement of rice crop and many of our current varieties derive many genes from this species. Its in-situ conservation for evolutionary process and adaptation to changing climate is important. This will be wealth for posterity not only for India but for the whole world. Oryza rufipogon, the progenitor of present-day cultivated rice, O. sativa, is one of the most studied wild species of rice. It is a perennial plant commonly found in a marsh or aquatic habitats of eastern and southern Asia. O. rufipogon is photosensitive in nature and flowers during short days during the months of November and December. The seeds have a tendency to shatter as soon as they mature. It is tolerant of flooding and acidic soils.

Notification by Government of Assam


Arittapatti Biodiversity Heritage Site



193.215 He

Uniqueness: This BHS has rich biological and historical significance with the presence of around 250 bird species including 3 flagship Raptor species - Laggar Falcon, Shaheen Falcon, Bonelli's Eagle and wildlife like Indan Pangolin, Python and Slender Loris.

Notification by Government of Tamil Nadu


Mahendragiri hill Biodiversity Heritage Site



4250 He

Uniqueness: Mahendragiri hill is situated at an elevation between 700-1501 m above mean sea level in Gajapati district of Odisha. With increase altitude, the hill complex demonstrates several micro climatic conditions like tropical shola, tropical semievergreen, tropical moist-deciduous & tropical dry deciduous. The diversified vegetation with rich floral diversity representing 40% of the reported flora of Odisha. A total of 1,358 species of plants including 1,042 species of angiosperms under 122 families, 60 species of pteridophytes, 104 species of bryophytes, 53 species of lichens and 72 species of macro-fungi and 2 species of gymnosperms occurring in the hill ecosystem.The ancient temples of Kunti, Shima, Arjuna and Yudhisthir at Mahendragiri have been declared as protected monuments under the Ancient Monument and Archaeological sites and Remains Act 1958 by the State Government. These monuments provide a sacred and holy background for receiving about one lakh devotees annually every year to worship the deities of the hill

Notification by Government of Odisha


State Horticulture Research and Development Station

West Bengal


39.61 ha

Rich Heritage of indigenous germplasm of horticulture and medicinal plants. It provides good habitat for good number of avifauna, butterflies and other insects

Notification by Government of West Bengal


Namthing Pokhari

West Bengal


4.819 ha

Habitat for Himalayan Newt, which is an evolutionary significant species originated during the early-middle Miocene and endemic to the Indo-Nepal Himalayan region.

Notification by Government of West Bengal


Char Balidanga

West Bengal


46.862 ha

Habitat of nearly 100 species of avifauna with other Schedule-I fauna like Golden Monitor Lizard, smooth coated Otter, Golden Jackal etc and other rare animals.

Notifications by Government of West Bengal


Amkhoi Wood Fossil Park

West Bengal


10 ha

The site has unique geological and palaeo-botanical features. Well preserved angiosperm wood fossil representing the existence of a forest dating back to the late Jurassic age.

Notification by Government of West Bengal


Haldir Char Island

West Bengal

Purba Medinipur

4.73 ha

The land is a mangrove swamp with tidal influence  and sustains littoral fauna. The peripheral part, the land water interface, is populated with Saccharum spontaneum, Phragmites karka, Vetiveria zizanioides, effective in controlling erosion. The char land inside is populated with Avicennia marina, A. officianalis, Sonneratia apetala, , Bruguiera gymnorhiza, Aegiceras corniculatum, Excoecaria agallocha and mangrove associates lke Derris scandens Thespesia populnea, Cryptocoryne ciliata, Acanthus ilicifolius, Clerodendron inerme, Dolichos sp. etc,

It also has remarkable avifauna including Microcarbo niger, Phalacrocorax fuscicollis, Egretta sp, Nycticorax nycticorax, Ardeola grayii besides the other vertebrates like Varanus bengalensis and Herpestes sp.

Notification by Government of West Bengal


Birampur-Baguran Jalpai

West Bengal

Purba Medinipur

95.91 ha

Intertidal coastal stretch of nearly 7.3 km provides the habitat of Ocypod macrocera, Dotilla myctiroides, Uca lactea, Varanus sp, Herpestes sp, Canis aureus, Felis chaus and many other varieties.

Notification by Government of West Bengal


Tungkyong Dho


North Sikkim

0.0650 ha

Tungkyong Dho (Lake) is believed to be one of the oldest natural dho (lake) directly related to the Hee-Youngmingmoo clan of Lepcha community in Dzongu. Dzongu valley is a specially protected area for aboriginal/ indigenous primitive tribes considered to be the original inhabitant of Sikkim called as Lepchas and a very unique cultural and historical significance. The Lepchas, as in other communities have their own share of clan or caste and are nature worshipper and custodians since time immemorial. The Lepchas sanctify this sacred lake yearly through ‘MUN PUDIM’ and through lama also.The area harbours considerable number of plant species including Acer oblongum, Albizia sp, Alnus nepalensis, Bischofia javanica, Castanopsis tribuloides, Cryptomeria japonica, Duabanga grandiflora, Juglans regia, Macaranga pustulata, and Schima wallichii. Some of the mammals found in the area are Asia black bear, rhesus monkey, porcupine, palm civet, flying squirrel, barking deer, goral, squirrel, yellow-throated marten, jackal, jungle cat, otter, wild-boar, pangolin, etc. It also harbour numerous bird species like like black bulbul, black drongo, great barbet, grey treepie, chestnut crowned laughing thrush, common kestrel, blue whistling thrush, serpent eagle, long-tailored minivet, oriental magpie, oriental turtle dove, white crested laughing thrush, etc.

Notification by Government of Sikkim


Gandhamardan Hill


Bolangir and Bargarh

18,963.898 ha

Treasure trove of medicinal plants comprising 1055 floral species including 849 angiosperms, 56 pteridophytes, 40 bryophytes, 45 lichens , 2 angiosperms and 63 macrofungi. The Faunal diversity of 500 species includes 43 mammals, 161 birds, 16 amphibians, 118 butterflies, 27 dragonflies7 damselflies and 83 spiders Two endemic species, a plant , Ficus conccina var. dasycarpa and a spider, Peucetia harishankarensis are endemic to this hill. Two historical monuments , Nrusinghhanath and Harishankar temples located in the Northern and Southern slopes respectively in the foothills have immense cultural significance. These are two major pilgrimage sites of Odisha . Moreover, famous traveller, Hiusen Tsang described this hill shrine as a Buddhist Heritage Site, "Parimalagiri". The site has its socio-economic, ecological and biological significance and long history of human association

Notification by Government of Odisha


(Source: National Biodiversity Authority.