Human - Wildlife Conflict


Human-Wildlife Interaction Database: 

Articles on Human - Wildlife Conflict published in International/ National Journals


1  Human–carnivore conflict: ecological and economical sustainability of predation on livestock by snow leopard and other carnivores in the Himalaya


2 The hidden dimensions of human–wildlife conflict: Health impacts, opportunity and transaction costs


3  Human–Wildlife Conflict: Proximate Predictors of Aggression Between Humans and Rhesus Macaques in India


4 Large carnivore attacks on humans in central India: a case study from the Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve


5  Human-Wildlife Conflict in the Forest Villages of Barak Valley, Assam, India


6 Locating Human-Wildlife Interactions: Landscape Constructions and Responses to Large Carnivore Conservation in India and Norway


7 Assessing Habitat Quality of Forest-Corridors through NDVI Analysis in Dry Tropical Forests of South India: Implications for Conservation


8 An elephantine challenge: human–elephant conflict distribution in the largest Asian elephant population, southern India


9 An attitude assessment of human-elephant conflict in a critical wildlife corridor within the Terai Arc Landscape, India


10 Livestock predation by common leopard in Binsar Wildlife Sanctuary, India: human–wildlife conflicts and conservation issues


11 Assessing Patterns of Human-Wildlife Conflicts and Compensation around a Central Indian Protected Area


12 Patterns of human–wildlife conflicts and compensation: Insights from Western Ghats protected areas


13  Human–felid conflict in corridor habitats: implications for tiger and leopard conservation in Terai Arc Landscape, India


14  Socio-economic status and perception of fishermen towards resolving human- tiger conflict around Sundarban Tiger Reserve, India Scientific Transactions in Environment and Technovat...


15  Compensating Human–Wildlife Conflict in Protected Area Communities: Ground-Level Perspectives from Uttarakhand, India


16 A god becomes a pest? Human-rhesus macaque interactions in Himachal Pradesh, northern India


17  Characterizing human–tiger conflict in and around Ranthambhore Tiger Reserve, western India


18  Understanding spatial and temporal patterns of human–elephant conflict in Assam, India





Guidelines for Human-Leopard Conflict Management 

Management of Human-Wildlife Interactions and Invasive Allien Species in India

Download pdf

Safely handling sitauations when leopards enter human dense areas (Source: NCF, 2016)












Guidelines for Management of Human Elephant Conflicts




  • Book References on Human-Wildlife Conflict


Ali, Akhtar . The Man-eater of Dogadda. Dogadda, Mansoor Prakashan.168p.

Basappanavar, C.H.and Kaveriappa, K.M. (2007) Romancing the Elephant : A Strategy to Mitigate Human-Elephant Conflict - A Study. Bengaluru, Vanasuma prakashana, 174p.

Bhagwati, P.N. (1997). Community Forest Management in Protected Areas : Van Gujjars Proposal for the Rajaji Area. Dehradun, Natraj Publishers. 336p.

Conover, Michael. (2001). Resolving Human-Wildlife Conflicts: The Science of Wildlife Damage Management. Boca raton: Lewis publishers,418p.

Corbett, Jim (1998). Kumaon Ke Narbakshi : Jim Corbett. Dehradun, Natraj publishers. 243p.

Gilbert, Frederick F. and Dodds, Donald G.(1992). The Philosophy and Practice of Wildlife Management. Malabar: Kroeger Publishing Company.313p. (With bibliographical indexes).

Gittleman, John L. (Ed.) (1996). Carnivore behaviour ecology and evolution - Vol. 2. London: Cornell University Press, 644p.

Herrero, Stephen. (1985). Bear Attacks : Their Causes and Avoidance.New York, The Lyons Press. 287p.

Karanth, K. Ullas. (2006). A View from the Machan : How Science can Save the Fragile Predator. Delhi: Permanent Black. 153p.

Karnath, K. Ullas. Predators and Prey : Nature Strikes a Balance. New Delhi, Vigyan Prasar. 64p. (NCSTC-Hornbill Natural History Series).

Kruuk, Hans(2002). Hunter and Hunted : Relationships between Carnivores and People. New York, Cambridge University Press, 246p.

Menon, Vivek and others (Eds.)(2005). Back to the wild : studies in wildlife rehabilitation. New Delhi, Wildlife trust of India.310p.

Mishra, S.K. (1982). A Scheme for Chandka Elephant Reserve. Orissa,Forest Department (Wildlife Wing), 151p.

Sawarbal, Vasant K. and Ranjagan, Mahesh (Eds.)(2005).Battles Over Nature : Science and the Politics of Conservation. Delhi, Permanent Black. 412p. (Ecology and wildlife series).

Schaller, George B.(1973). The Deer and the Tiger : A Study of Wildlife in India. Chicago, University of Chicago press. 370p.

Seidensticker, John and Christie, Sarah and Jackson, Peter (Eds.) (1999) Riding the Tiger: Tiger Conservation in human-Dominated Landscapes.Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. 381p.

Sinha, Vivek R.(2003). The Vanishing Tiger : Wild Tigers, Co-predators and Prey Species. London, Salamander Books. 256p.

Sukumar, Raman (2003). The Living Elephants: Evolutionary Ecology, Behavior and Conservation. New York, Oxford University Press. 478p.

Untamed Orissa : A Journey into the Wilds of Orissa. Bhubaneswar, Wild Orissa, 2000. 196p.

Walia, Jaideep Singh.(2001). Badiya : Hunter Gathereres of Doon Valley (In Hindi) Jaideep Singh Walia. New Delhi, Traffic-India. 159p.

WII (2005). Relationships Amongst Large Herbivores, Habitats and People in Rajaji-Cobett National Parks : A Study in Uttaranchal, Northern India. Dehradun, Wildlife Institute of India, 2005. 254p.

Woodroffe, Rosie, Thirgood, Simon and Rabinowit, Alan (Eds.)(2005). People and Wildlife : Conflict or Co-Existence. Cambride, Cambridge University press. 497p.


  • Report References on Human-Wildlife Conflict



Athreya, Vidya R. and others(2004). A study of the man-leopard conlict in the Junnar Forest Division, Pune district, Maharashtra.Maharashtra, Maharashtra forest department, 89p.

Bagchi, Sumanta and Mishra, Charudutt (2004). Living with large Carnivores: Snow leopard Predation on livestock in the Spiti Trans- Himalaya.CERC Techanical Report No-11 P. 1-10.

Bhardwarj, Anil K., Badola, Ruchi and Mishra, Bidyut k.(2002). Building Partnerships for Biodiversity Conservation : A Collaborative Project with Ford Foundation in Rajaji National Park., Dehradun, Wildlife Institute of India,46p.

Bharucha, E.K. Protected Areas and Wildlife Conservation in Maharashtra: The world bank. 317p.

Bhatnagar, Yashveer, Stakrey, Rinchen Wangchuk and Jackson, Rodney (1999). A survey of depredation and related wildlfe-human conflicts in Hemis national park, Ladakh, Jammu & Kashmir, India. P. 1-14.

Bhatnagar, Yashveer, Wangchuk, Rinchen and Jackson, Rodney (1999) A survey of depredation and related wildlife-human conflicts in Hemis national park, Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, India. P. 1-20.

Bhattachrjee, Subhadeep (2006). Monitoring Leopard (Panthera pardus) and its Prey in Different Human-Leopard Conflict Zones (high, medium and low) Pauri Garhwal, Uttaranchal. Dehradun: ICFRE,74p.

Chauhan, Devendra Singh(2007). Status and Ecology of Leopard in Pauri Garhwal : Ranging Patterns and Reproductive Biology of Leopard (Panthera pardus) in Pauri Garhwal Himalayas, Dehradun, Wildlife Institute of India,.200p.

Chauhan, N.P.S. and Soni, V.C. Ecological, Behaviour and Interaction of Highly Dense Population of Sloth Bear (Melursus) and Human-sloth Bear Conflict in Jessore Wildlife Sanctuary, Gujarat and Mount Abu Wildlife. Rajasthan, Wildlife Institute of India. 67p.

Chauhan, N.P.S., Bargali, Harendra Singh and Akhtar, Naim. Ecology and management of problematic sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) in North Bilaspur forest division: Final project report. Dehradun, Wildlife Institute of India. 61p.

Dwivedi, G.D. (1982). The Problem of Cattle Lifting by the Tigers Around Bandhavgarh National Park Madhya Pradesh, Dehradun, Wildlife Institute of India. 82p.

Easa, P.S. and Sankar, S. (1999).Study on Man-Wildlife Interaction in Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala.Kerala, Kerala Forest Research Institute. 183p. KFRI Research Report; no. 166

Edgaonkar, Advait and Chellam, Ravi (1998). A Preliminary Study on the Ecology of the leopard, Panthera pardus fusca in Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Maharashtra. Wildlife Institute of India. Dehradun, Wildlife Institute of India. 51p.

Jayson, E.A. (1998). Studies on Man-Wildlife Conflict in Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary and Adjacent Areas: E.A. Jayson. Kerala, Kerala Forest Research Institute. 71p. KFRI Research Report No. 140

Konthoujam, Bidyarani, Badola, Ruchi and Hussain, S.A. (2005). Human - Wildlife Conflicts Around the Corbett Tiger Reserve : A Case Study of Six Villages. Dehradun, Wildlife Institute of India.

Mathur, P.K., Uniyal, V.P. and FREEP - GHNP (1999). An Ecological Study of the Conservation of Biodiversity and Biotic Pressures in the Great Himalayan National Park Conservation Area - An Ecodevelopment Approach, Vol. 5 - Vol. 6: Forestry Research Education and Extension Project, Great Himalayan National Park (FREEP - GHNP). Dehradun, Wildlife Institute of India.

Mukherjee, S.K. and Johnsingh, A.J.T.(1999) Ecological and Socio-economic Studies on the Kalakad - Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve : An Eco-Development Approach. Dehra Dun, Wildlife Institute of India. 426p.

Musavi, Azra, Sawarkar, V.B. and Mathur, P.K. (2000) Developing Area Specific Management Guide Guidelines for Conservation of Biodiversity, Taking into Consideration the Existing Forestry Practices and Local People's Needs: A Socio-economic study of tribals and non-tribals in Melghat Tiger Reserve and Bori Wildlife Sanctuary. Dehra Dun, Wildlife Institute of India.184p.

Rajpurohit, Kishan Singh (1998). Study of Wild Animal Damage Problems in and Around Protected Areas and Managed Forests in India Phase - II Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. Dehradun, Wildlife Institute of India. 92p.

West Bengal World Bank Aided Forestry Project : Study on the Management of Rhinoceros in West Bengal.(1997). Dehradun, Wildlife Institute of India. 201p.

Yoganand, K., Rice, C.G. and Johnsingh, A.J.T. (2005).Evaluating Panna National Park with special reference to ecology of sloth bear (Melursus ursinus). Dehradun, Wildlife Institute of India. 172p.


  • Theses/Dissertations References on Human-Wildlife Conflict


Ahmed, B.M.H (1991). Man and Wildboar, Sus scrofa cristatus (Wagner) Interaction from the Western Ghats Region of South Maharashtra. Ph.D. thesis submitted to Shivaji University. 149p.

Arjunan, M.(2004). Protected areas and people: a case study of forest resource use and human impact in the Kalakad-Mundanthurai tiger reserve. Ph.D. thesis submitted to Pondicherry University.119p.

Das, Sujishnu (2006). Food Habits of Leopard (Panthera pardus) in Different Human- Leopard Conflict Categories in Pauri Garhwal, Uttaranchal.M.Sc. dissertation submitted to Deemed University, FRI, Dehradun.

Madhusudan, M.D. (2003). Human Resource-Use and Large Mammal Conservation in the Tropical Forests of Karnataka, India. Ph.D. thesis submitted to Manipal Academy of Higher Education. 125p.

Mishra, Charudutt (2001). High Altitude Survival: Conflicts between Pastoralism and Wildlife in the Trans-Himalaya. Netherlands, Wageningen University, 131p.

Roy, Anirban Datta (2003). Assessment of Human-Elephant Conflicts in Jalpaiguri District of West Bengal in Relation to Land-Use Patterns.Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun.

Singh, Anil Kumar (2006). Ecological Investigaton of Human - Elephant Conflicts in South West Bengal. Ph.D. thesis submitted to Saurashtra University, 134p.

Singh, K.N. (2001). Ecological Studies of North Western Population of Indian Elephants. Ph.D. thesis submitted to Kumaon University, Nainital.404p.



  • Research Papers References on Human-Wildlife Conflict


Ahmed, B.M.H. and Samat, Jay S.(1989). Selection of new habitats by wildboar Sus scrofa cristatus (Wagner) as a result of human interaction in The Radhanagar Wildlife Sanctuary in the Western Ghats. Proc.Nat.Symp.Anim.Behav. P. 180-184.

Akhtar, Naim and Chauhan, N.P.S.(2008). Status of human wildlife conflict and mitigation strategies in Marwahi forest division, Bilaspur Chhattisgarh.-- The Indian forester. 134(10): 1349-1358.

Akhtar, Nami, Bargali, Harendra Singh and Chauhan, N.P.S. (2004). Sloth bear habitat use in disturbed and unprotected areas of Madhya Pradesh, India. Ursus. 15(2): 203-211

Bargali, H.S., Akhtar, Naim and Chauhan, N.P.S. (1999) Human mauling behaviour of sloth bears in North Bilaspur forest division, Madhya pradesh, India.12th International conference on bear research and management, Romania, 1999.

Chaturvedi, M.D.(1956) How Man-Eaters are Made.Indian Forester. 82: 54-69.

Chauhan, N.P.S., Bargali, H.S. and Akhtar, Naim (1999). Human-Sloth bear conflicts in the State of Madhya Pradesh, India. 12th Intn. Conf. on Bear Research and Management Oct. 13-18, 1999.

Choudhury, S.R. and Sinha, J.P. (1980) The Kheri Maneaters.Cheetal. 21(2-3): 1-25

Chowdhury, M.K. and Sanyal, P.(1985) Man-eating Behaviour of the tigers of sunderbans, West Bengal.Environment and ecology. 3(2): 243-248

Conflict between Predators and People in Ladakh.Cat News. (27): 18.

Johnsingh, A.J.T., Sankar, K. and Mukherjee, Shomita(1997). Saving Prime Tiger Habitat in Sariska Tiger Reserve.Cat news. (27): 4-5.

Kothari, Ashish, Suri, Saloni and Singh, Neena (1995). Conservation in India : A New Direction.Economic and Political weekly: Oct., 1995. P. 2755-2766.

Madhusudan, M.D. and Mishra, Charudutt (2005). Why big fierce animals are threatened : conserving large mammals in densely populated landscapes.IN: Saberwal, Vasant K. and Rangarajan, Mahesh (eds.) Battles over nature: science & the politics of conservation. P.1-31.

Mishra, Charudutt (1997). Livestock Depredation by Large Carnivores in the Indian Trans-Himalaya : Conflict Perceptions and Conservation Strategies.Environmental conservation: 24(4): 338-343.

Mishra, Charudutt and Rawat, G.S. (1998). Livestock grazing and biodiversity conservation : comments on Saberwal.Conservation biology: 12(3): 712-714.

Mishra, Charudutt (1997). Livestock Grazing and Wildlife Conservation in the Indian Trans-Himalaya: A Preliminary Survey, 1997. P. 1-22.

Pabla, H.S. (1997). Man Wildlife Conflict Around Protected Area.Vacham: 8: 2: 1-21.

Rajpurohit, K.S. (1999). Child lifting : wolves in Hazaribagh, India.Ambio. 28(2): 162-166.

Rajpurohit, K.S. and Krausman, P.R.(2000). Human-sloth-bear conflicts in Madhya pradesh, India. Wildlife society bulletin: 28(2): 393-399.

Raval, Shishir R. The Gir National Park and the Maldharis: Beyond Setting Aside.In: Resident peoples and national parks - social dilemmas and strategies in International Conservation. Tucson: University of Arizona press. P. 1-443.

Rishi, Vinod (2005). Mitigating Man-Wildlife Conflict- Identifying aberrant Predators: a case study of the Man-Eater of Sonaripur. Indian Forester. 131(10): 1255-1266.

Saberwal, Vasant K. and Kothari, Ashish (1996). The Human Dimension in Conservation Biology Curricula in developing Countries.Conservation Biology. 10(5): 1328-1331.

Saberwal, Vasant K., Gibbs, James P. and Chellam, Ravi (1994). Lion- Human Conflict in the Gir Forest, India. Conservation Biology: 8(2): 501- 507.

Sathyakumar, S.(2006). status and distribution of Himalayan brown bear (Ursus arctos isabellinus) in India : an assessment of changes over ten years.Indian Forester. 132(12a): 89-96.

Srivastav, Aseem (1997). Livestock Predation by Gir Lions and Ecodevelopment. Tigerpaper: 24(2): 1-5.

Srivastav, Aseem. Managing Conflicts Options for Gir Protected Area. Wildlife Junagadh. P. 1-13.

Sukumar, R (1991). The Management of Large Mammals in Relation to Male Strategies and Conflict With People.Biological conservation. 55: 93-102.

Williams, A. Christy and Johnsingh, A.J.T.(1997). Elephant Capture in Meghalaya, North East India : The Past And the Future.—Gajah. 17: 1-7.